The 15th-century Renaissance brought about a renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. Another major schism, the Reformation, resulted in the splintering of the Western Christendom into several Christian denominations.Martin Luther in 1517 protested against the sale of indulgences and soon moved on to deny several key points of Roman Catholic doctrine. Others like Zwingli and Calvin further criticized Roman Catholic teaching and worship. These challenges developed into the movement called Protestantism, which repudiated the primacy of the pope, the role of tradition, the seven sacraments, and other doctrines and practices. The Reformation in England began in 1534, when King Henry VIII had himself declared head of the Church of England. Beginning in 1536, the monasteries throughout England, Wales and Ireland were dissolved. Michelangelo's Pietà in St. Peter's Basilica, The Catholic Church were among the patronage of the Renaissance.Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal to save its authority over the arrogance of people, known as the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform.The Council of Trent clarified and reasserted Roman Catholic doctrine. During the following centuries, competition between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism became deeply entangled with political struggles among European states.Meanwhile, the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 brought about a new wave of missionary activity. Partly from missionary zeal, but under the impetus of colonial expansion by the European powers, Christianity spread to the Americas, Oceania, East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Throughout Europe, the divides caused by the Reformation led to outbreaks of religious violence and the establishment of separate state churches in Europe: Lutheranism in parts of Germany and in Scandinavia and Anglicanism in England in 1534. Ultimately, these differences led to the outbreak of conflicts in which religion played a key factor, also giving Turks outstanding chances to invade Europe and spread out barbarism. The Thirty Years' War, the English Civil War, and the French Wars of Religion are prominent examples. These events intensified the Christian debate on persecution and toleration. Church has played the main role in weakening European Countries and nations against Turks and Arabs and de-evolutionizing them, for what the Lord said was so different from what they exercised in his name during medieval time , up until now.